There are currently 152 planets with proper names recognized by the International Astronomical Union. 8 of them are in our Solar system, including Earth and the other 144 are exoplanets in other star systems.
Not every discovered planet receives a proper name. Most of them only get a scientific designation, but every few years the IAU opens up an international contest where people can submit suggestions to name a few. These are then voted by a committee that includes the person that discovered them.
The following lists orders all the currently named planets alphabetically and lists some general information about each of them, including the meaning and origin of their names.